Deferred Income Tax

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are calculated in respect of temporary differences using the liability method. Deferred income tax is recognised in the income statement, except to the extent that it relates to items directly taken to equity or other comprehensive income, in which case it is recognised against equity or other comprehensive income.

Deferred income taxes are provided for all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying values for financial reporting purposes, except where deferred income tax arises from initial recognition of goodwill or of an asset or liability in transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss.

A deferred tax asset is recorded only to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the end of the reporting period.

Deferred income tax is provided on temporary differences arising on investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures, except where timing of reversal of temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that temporary differences will not be reversed in the near future.