Business Combination and Goodwill

Acquisition of Subsidiaries

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. The cost of an acquisition is measured as the aggregate of the consideration transferred, measured at acquisition date fair value and the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree. For each business combination, the acquirer measures the non-controlling interest in the acquiree either at fair value or at the proportionate share of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets. Acquisition costs are included in administrative expenses in the periods in which the costs are incurred.

When the Group acquires a business, it assesses the financial assets and liabilities assumed for appropriate classification and designation in accordance with the contractual terms, economic circumstances and pertinent conditions as at the acquisition date. This includes the separation of embedded derivatives in host contracts by the acquiree.

If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquisition date fair value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured to fair value at the acquisition date through profit or loss.

Any contingent consideration to be transferred by the acquirer is recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Subsequent changes to the fair value of the contingent consideration which is deemed to be an asset or liability, are recognised either in profit or loss or as a change to other comprehensive income. If the contingent consideration is classified as equity, it is not remeasured until it is finally settled within equity.


Goodwill is initially measured at cost being the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred and the amount recognised for non-controlling interest over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. If this consideration is lower than the fair value of the net assets of the subsidiary acquired, the difference is recognised in profit or loss. Goodwill is recorded in the functional currencies of the acquired subsidiaries.

After initial recognition, goodwill is measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill is reviewed for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that its carrying amount may be impaired. As at the acquisition date, goodwill is allocated to each of the cash-generating units (groups of cash-generating units), expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination. Impairment is determined by assessing the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit (groups of cash-generating units), to which the goodwill relates. Where recoverable amount of cash-generating unit (groups of cash-generating units) is less than the carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognised.

Where goodwill forms part of a cash-generating unit and part of the operation within that unit is disposed of, the goodwill associated with the operation disposed of is included in the carrying amount of the operation when determining the gain or loss on disposal of the operation. Goodwill disposed of in this circumstance is measured based on the relative values of the operation disposed of and the portion of the cash-generating unit retained.